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Psychosocial factors affecting COVID-19 vaccine uptake in the UK: A prospective cohort study (CoVAccS – Wave 3)

Publication date: 

13 Feb 2023


Vaccine: X Volume 13, April 2023, 100276


Smith LE, Sim J, Cutts M, Dasch H, Amlôt R, Sevdalis N, Rubin GJ and Sherman SM

Publication type: 



Abstract Background We investigated factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine uptake, future vaccination intentions, and changes in beliefs and attitudes over time. Methods Prospective cohort study. 1500 participants completed an online survey in January 2021 (T1, start of vaccine rollout in the UK), of whom 1148 (response rate 76.5 %) completed another survey in October 2021 (T2, all UK adults offered two vaccine doses). Binary logistic regression analysis was used to investigate factors associated with subsequent vaccine uptake. Content analysis was used to investigate the main reasons behind future vaccine intentions (T2). Changes in beliefs and attitudes were investigated using analysis of variance. Findings At T2, 90.0 % (95 % CI 88.2–91.7 %) of participants had received two doses of a COVID-19 vaccine, 2.2 % (95 % CI 1.3–3.0 %) had received one dose, and 7.4 % (95 % CI 5.9–8.9 %) had not been vaccinated. Uptake was associated with higher intention to be vaccinated at T1, greater perceived vaccination social norms, necessity of vaccination, and perceived safety of the vaccine. People who had initiated vaccination reported being likely to complete it, while those who had not yet received a vaccine reported being unlikely to be vaccinated in the future. At T2, participants perceived greater susceptibility to, but lower severity of, COVID-19 (p < 0.001) than at T1. Perceived safety and adequacy of vaccine information were higher (p < 0.001). Interpretation Targeting modifiable beliefs about the safety and effectiveness of vaccination may increase uptake.